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Kyoto Agreement China

In 2001, the previous meeting (COP6 bis)[88] continued in Bonn, at which the necessary decisions were taken. After some concessions, supporters of the protocol (led by the European Union) managed to secure the agreement between Japan and Russia by allowing more levels of carbon dioxide. The protocol left open several issues that were to be decided later by the Sixth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, which attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in The Hague at the end of 2000, but failed to reach an agreement due to disputes between the European Union (which advocated tougher implementation) and the United States. Canada, Japan and Australia (who wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible). Barker et al. (2007, p. 79) evaluated the literature on Kyoto Protocol cost estimates. [117] Due to the Non-Participation of the United States in the Kyoto Treaty, it was found that cost estimates were much lower than in the previous IPCC Progress Report. Without the participation of the United States and making full use of the flexible Kyoto mechanisms, the cost has been estimated at less than 0.05% of GDP, in accordance with Annex B. Compared to previous estimates of 0.1 to 1.1%. In the absence of flexible mechanisms, non-US equity costs were estimated at less than 0.1%. Compared to previous estimates of 0.2 to 2%. These cost estimates were considered to be based on extensive evidence and consistency in the literature.

Ban Ki Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, called on world leaders to reach an agreement on the fight against global warming at the 69th session of the United Nations General Assembly[153] held in New York on 23 September 2014. The next climate summit was held in Paris in 2015, which gave birth to the Paris Agreement, the successor to the Kyoto Protocol. It is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, which did not set legally binding restrictions on emissions or enforcement mechanisms. Only Parties to the UNFCCC may become Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the third meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 3) held in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997. On 8 December 2012, following the 2012 UN Climate Change Conference, an agreement was reached to extend it until 2020 and set a date of 2015 for the development of a follow-up document to be implemented from 2020 (see for more information). [151] The outcome of the Doha talks received a mixed reception, with small island states being critical of the package as a whole. . . .